Similarities and differences between plant and animal cells (comparing plant and animal cells)
Differences between plant and animal cells are many and the major differences will be listed based on their ultrastructure as seen with an electron microscope. Some differences between plant and animal cells cannot be seen using the light microscope alone. The similarities between plant and animal cells will also be listed with a summary of some major features.
Differences between plant and animal cells
- Plant cells are rigid whereas animal cells are not
- Plant cells contain chloroplasts
- Plant cells are relatively larger than animal cells
- Plant cells have a definite shape because of the presence of cell wall unlike animal cells which have no definite shape as they are bounded by cell membrane
- Plant cells have plastids but animal cell do not have plastid
- Plant cells have cell walls but animal cells do not have cell walls
- Plant cells have large permanent vacuoles but animal cells do not have permanent vacuoles
- Animal cells have centrioles but plant cells do not have centrioles
- Animal cells contain Lysosomes which are absent in plant cells
- Plant cells have plasmodesmata but animal cells do not have plasmodesmata
- Plant cells have cell plate (which is a membrane that forms in a part of the cytoplasm by fusion of vesicles of a dividing plant cell during cytokinesis this cell plate later forms a new cell wall. Animal cells do not have cell plate
Presence of Centrioles in animal cell but not in plant cells
The only structure commonly found in animal cells that is not present in plant cells is the centriole. It is small structure located near the nucleus that appears as single when viewed with light microscope but are actually two lying at right angles to each other when viewed with an electron microscope.
Presence of Cell wall in plant cells that is absent in animal cells
Plants cell wall can be easily seen with a light microscope because they are larger than animal cells. Plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall outside the cell surface membrane. The cell wall contains fibers of a polysaccharide called Cellulose that makes the cell wall rigid and helps give the cell a definite shape.
Large permanent central Vacuole in plant cells Vs small temporary vacuoles in some animal cells
Plant cells contain large permanent vacuoles located at the central part of each cell that contains pigments, enzymes and nutrients need by the cell. This structure is not found in animal cells but some animal cells only have small vacuoles that are temporary that may be used during phagocytosis.
Presence of Chloroplasts in plant cells
The presence of Chloroplasts in plant cells help in the absorption of light during photosynthesis this organelle is absent in animal cells. Chloroplast is relatively large and can be seen easily using a light microscope.
Similarities between Plant and Animal cells
Similarities of plant and animal cells are many and they organelles they have in common also perform similar functions. Plant and animal cells have the following similarorganelles: nucleus, golgi apparatus, membrane, Endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, mitochondria, nucleolus, and cytoplasm.
Similarities of plant and animal cells
- Both plant and animal cells have cell surface membrane or plasma membrane
- Both plant and animal cells have nucleus which contains the DNA
- Both plant and animal cells contain nucleolus
- Both plant and animal cells have mitochondrion the power house of cells
- Both plant and animal cells have golgi bodies or golgi complex or golgi apparatus
- Both plant and animal cells have endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
- Both plant and animal cells have ribosomes
- Plant and animal cells contain Cytoplasm upon which other organelles are suspended