Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in biology

Table of Contents

ATP meaning

ATP means adenosine triphosphate and it is a molecule that carries energy within cells.

Definition of adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is defined as a pyrophosphate molecule that provides energy for metabolic processes, i.e., cell survival.

What is ATP in biology?

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a hydrotrope and organic compound that provides energy to many processes in living cells, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse propagation, condensate dissolution, and chemical synthesis.

It is a complex organic high-energy compound that provides energy for metabolic processes to take place. It is known as the “molecular unit of currency” of intracellular energy transfer, “Energy Currency of the Cell,” or “energy unit of the cell.” It is the primary source of energy for use and storage within every cell.

ATP is used by all living things. For example, it is used in signal transduction pathways for cell communication and is incorporated into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) during DNA synthesis, in addition to being used as an energy source.

ATP function

  1. ATP is important in anabolic reactions because it provides energy for bone formation or breaking. It provides the majority of the energy for cellular reactions and processes. Inside living cells, energy is stored and transported in the form of ATP. Before being used, all other forms of chemical energy in the cell are converted to ATP.
  2. During active transport mechanisms, ATP is used as an energy source to transport molecules into and out of the cell.
  3. ATP plays a role in intracellular signaling. They act as a substrate for phosphate transfer kinases, adenylate cyclase enzymes, and other enzymes. During intracellular signaling processes, ATP is converted to cAMP (cyclic AMP), which serves as a secondary signaling molecule.
  4. Extracellular signaling and neurotransmission are also aided by ATP. ATP is used for cell-to-cell communication during the purinergic signaling process. It also functions as a neurotransmitter in a variety of neural signaling processes.
  5. ATP hydrolysis is required as fuel for vital processes such as muscle contraction-relaxation, cellular movements, impulse transmission, heart pumping, blood circulation, and so on.
  6. The biosynthesis of DNA and RNA molecules requires ATP. Prokaryotic DNA gyrase or DNA topoisomerase II requires ATP in the form of dATP (deoxyribonucleotide adenosine triphosphate).
  7. ATP serves as an intracellular energy reserve.
  8. It also participates in protein synthesis by activating aminoacyl – tRNA synthetase enzymes.
  9. In cell membranes, there are several ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) that use the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis for cellular transportation such as the uptake of vitamins, metal ions, biosynthetic precursors, and so on, as well as the efflux of lipids, drug residues, sterols, and so on.
  10. ATP has been discovered to function as a biological hydrotrope. ATP can interfere with protein thermal aggregation and solubility.
  11. Injectable ATPs are used to diagnose and treat certain cardiac disorders (cardiac bradyarrhythmias).
  12. ATP is also being researched for its anti-aging properties and is being used in anti-aging medications.

Adenosine triphosphate structure

This adenosine triphosphate diagram shows its structure.
This is the structure of ATP.

Adenine, ribose, and a triphosphate moiety make up ATP. The 9-nitrogen atom of adenosine is attached to the 1-carbon atom of ribose, which is then attached to a triphosphate group at the 5-carbon atom of sugar. A triphosphate moiety is made up of three phosphate groups.

They are known as the alpha (α), beta (β), and gamma (γ) phosphate groups. There are three phosphodiester bonds: one between phosphate groups, one between phosphate and ribose sugar, and one between phosphate and ribose sugar.

The first two are phosphodiester linkages that generate energy during hydrolysis. As a result, hydrolysis of ATP to ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) and then to AMP (Adenosine Monophosphate) produces energy, breaking the phosphodiester bond between ribose and phosphate requires energy.

Adenosine triphosphate production

ATP is an energy-rich compound that is primarily synthesized during aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration. Inside cells, ATP molecules are produced by the oxidation of glucose, lipids (fats), and amino acids. The energy released during nutrient oxidation is trapped in the ATP molecule as a high-energy phosphodiester bond.

Where is ATP produced?

In the mitochondria, the enzyme ATP synthase, which converts ADP and phosphate to ATP, produces the majority of the ATP in cells.

ATP production during photosynthesis

In plants, ATP is synthesized in the chloroplast’s thylakoid membrane. Photophosphorylation is the name given to this process. The “machinery” is similar to that of mitochondria, with the exception that light energy is used to pump protons across a membrane to generate a proton-motive force. ATP synthase is then activated, just like in oxidative phosphorylation. Some of the ATP produced in the chloroplasts is used in the Calvin cycle, which results in the formation of triose sugars.

Glucose in ATP production

The primary source of energy is carbohydrates. Carbohydrates in various forms (starch, sucrose, dextrose, lactose, fructose, and so on) are mostly broken down to the monosaccharide form ‘glucose.’ The glucose is then subjected to metabolic reactions such as glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation before being oxidized to release energy. This released energy is captured and stored as ATP.

ATP synthesis

  1. Cellular respiration
  2. Photo-phosphorylation
  3. Beta-oxidation
  4. Fermentation

ATP is synthesized during a variety of cellular processes, including phosphorylation reactions. It can happen in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. Cellular respiration (oxidative phosphorylation, substrate-level phosphorylation), beta-oxidation and lipid catabolism, protein catabolism, photo-phosphorylation, and fermentation as listed above, are the major methods of ATP production.

Cellular respiration

It is the process by which glucose is catabolized into acetyl – CoA and then oxidatively phosphorylated to produce ATP. It is the primary mechanism for producing the majority of the ATP required by a cell. The production of ATP via cellular respiration occurs in two stages namely, substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation.

Substrate-level phosphorylation

ATP is produced directly during glycolysis. The oxidation of G-3-P by the G-3-P dehydrogenase enzyme in the glycolytic pathway adds a high-energy phosphate group, which is transferred to ADP in the next reaction, resulting in an ATP molecule.

In another reaction, the energy released during 2-phosphoglycerate dehydration converts the low-energy phosphate bond into a high-energy phosphate bond, which is transferred to ADP in the next reaction to produce an ATP molecule.

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes then oxidize it to an acetyl – CoA molecule. The resulting acetyl – CoA is then subjected to the Krebs cycle, where it is oxidized to produce one equivalent of ATP, i.e., three molecules of NADH, and one molecule of FADH2. These NADH and FADH2 molecules act as electron carriers, entering the ETC (electron transport chain) and producing ATP molecules.

Oxidative phosphorylation

Intermediate compounds such as NADH and FADH2 produced during glycolysis, pyruvate decarboxylation, and the Krebs cycle are used as electron carriers and fed into the electron transport chain (ETC), which generates a proton gradient. The proton gradient is linked to chemiosmosis, which is where the ATP synthase enzyme produces ATP.

Photo-phosphorylation

Inside chlorophyll-containing cells are the process by which light energy is used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP. Photophosphorylation is a general reaction that can be expressed as follows:

ATP = ADP + light energy + Pi

There are two types of photophosphorylation namely cyclic and non-cyclic.

Cyclic photo-phosphorylation

It is the process by which electrons released by the P700 pigment of photosystem-I are recycled back to Photosystem-I. The released electron is subjected to an ETC, which generates a proton gradient that is used by ATP synthase to produce ATP in a process known as chemiosmosis. This process mostly happens in bacterial cells.

Non-cyclic photo-phosphorylation

It is the process by which the released electrons are not recycled back to the photosystem that produced them. Both photosystems I and II are excited simultaneously in this mechanism. In chemiosmosis, electrons released by P680 of photosystem-II pass through an ETC, which generates ATP by phosphorylating ADP by the ATP synthase enzyme. The electrons are then used to replace the electrons lost during photoexcitation by P700 of photosystem-II. The electrons produced by photosystem-II are then used to convert NADP+ to NADPH. It occurs primarily in plant cells and results in the release of one O2 molecule in each step.

Beta-oxidation

It is a catabolic reaction in which fatty acids are oxidized to acetyl – CoA, which is then subjected to the Krebs cycle and the ETC at the same time to generate ATP. One acetyl – CoA, NADH, and FADH2 are produced during each beta-oxidation cycle. In the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation processes, these intermediate products are further metabolized, releasing ATP.

Fermentation

It is the process of producing organic acid or alcohol by reducing pyruvate produced by sugar glycolysis (glucose). It takes place during the anaerobic respiration process. It is a substrate-level phosphorylation process that generates two ATP molecules from a single glucose molecule. Either lactic acid or ethanol is produced as a byproduct and due to a lack of oxygen, these products are unable to enter oxidative phosphorylation. As a result, no more ATP molecules are produced. Therefore, it is less effective in generating ATP than aerobic respiration.

Hydrolysis of ATP

How does ATP release energy?

Energy is released and ATP is transformed to adenosine diphosphate when one phosphate group is removed by breaking a phosphoanhydride bond in a process called hydrolysis (ADP). When phosphate is taken from ADP to generate adenosine monophosphate, energy is released as well (AMP).

In the presence of water and the ATPase enzyme, the energy-rich phosphodiester bonds of ATP molecules are broken down (hydrolyzed), releasing energy and inorganic phosphate molecules. It is an exergonic reaction that releases the energy that was stored in the phosphodiester bond during ATP formation. This released energy is used by the cell to carry out a variety of cellular activities and reactions.

To form ADP, ATP is first hydrolyzed, which breaks one energy-rich phosphodiester bond. The ADP molecule can then be hydrolyzed to form AMP by breaking another energy-rich phosphodiester bond. In the presence of water, the ATP hydrolase (ATPase) enzyme catalyzes the breakdown of phosphodiester bonds. Because ATP hydrolysis is reversible, ADP and AMP can be rephosphorylated from the ATP molecule.

ATP as a nucleotide

A nucleotide is a three-subunit organic compound composed of a nucleobase, a five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group. Ribose or deoxyribose can be used as the sugar component. Therefore, a nucleotide is a nucleoside with a phosphate group. A nucleotide is classified as nucleoside monophosphate (if only one phosphate group is attached to the sugar moiety), nucleoside diphosphate (two phosphate groups), or nucleoside triphosphate (three phosphate groups) (when with three phosphate groups).

A nucleoside can be ribonucleoside or deoxyribonucleoside depending on the pentose sugar component. A ribonucleoside is a nucleoside that contains ribose sugar. The ribonucleoside can be adenosine, guanosine, cytidine, uridine, or 5-methyluridine depending on the nucleobase component. A nucleoside with deoxyribose sugar is referred to as a deoxyribonucleoside. A deoxyribonucleoside can also be deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine, thymidine, or deoxyuridine, depending on the nucleobase component. Furthermore, depending on the nucleobase component, nucleosides can be classified as “double-ringed” purine or “single-ringed” pyrimidine.

FAQ on adenosine triphosphate

What is adenosine triphosphate?

Adenosine triphosphate definition in biology is seen as a compound found in all living tissue that consists of an adenosine molecule bonded to three phosphate groups.

What is an example of how ATP is used in the cell?

An adenosine triphosphate example is seen in muscle contraction.

What is ATP in biology?

Adenosine triphosphate is the main energy currency in living things.

What is the function of ATP?

ATP can be used to store energy for future reactions or it can be withdrawn to pay for reactions when the cell requires energy.

What are the components of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?

ATP is made up of three main structures: adenine, a nitrogenous base; ribose, a sugar; and a chain of three phosphate groups bound to ribose.

Can you identify the three main parts of the structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?

Yes, the three main parts of the structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are nitrogen base, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups.

What is an adenosine triphosphate molecule?

A molecule of adenosine triphosphate is defined as an energy-carrying molecule found in the cells of all living things.

How is adenosine triphosphate pronunciation done?

Adenosine triphosphate, ATP can be pronounced as (“Ah-DEN-oh-seen Try-FOS-fate”).

How are large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are generated?

Large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are generated when: The cells are able to function properly because they have enough oxygen.

What is the definition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?

Adenosine triphosphate ATP is defined as a compound made up of adenosine and three phosphate groups that, when hydrolyzed by enzymes, provide energy for many biochemical cellular processes.

Is adenosine triphosphate a nucleotide?

Yes, adenosine triphosphate is a nucleotide consisting of an adenine base linked to a ribose sugar linked to three phosphate groups.

What does adenosine triphosphate supplement do?

Adenosine triphosphate supplement improves your ability to maintain a high ATP turnover rate during high-intensity exercise.

How does adenosine triphosphate (ATP) become adenosine diphosphate (ADP)?

Adenosine triphosphate becomes adenosine diphosphate when one phosphate group is removed by breaking a phosphoanhydride bond, a process known as hydrolysis occurs, releasing energy and converting ATP to adenosine diphosphate (ADP).

Which electrolyte is necessary for the production of adenosine triphosphate?

The electrolyte known as phosphate is required for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy source for cellular metabolism.

Why is adenosine triphosphate (ATP important in cells)?

Adenosine triphosphate is an important molecule because it is the main energy source of energy for all living cells and it helps to store this energy.

Which sugar is a component of adenosine triphosphate?

The sugar that is a component of adenosine triphosphate is ribose sugar.

What is the adenosine triphosphate formula?

Adenosine triphosphate chemical formula is C10H16N5O13P3

What is the purpose of adenosine triphosphate ATP?

The purpose of adenosine triphosphate at the cellular level is to be the source of energy.

Which part of the adenosine triphosphate molecule is released when it is hydrolyzed?

The part of the adenosine triphosphate molecule that is released when it is hydrolyzed is the phosphate tail.

What is the purpose of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?

Adenosine triphosphate or ATP is primarily used as the source of energy for all living cells.

How do adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and lactic acid relate to cellular respiration?

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and lactic acid are related to cellular respiration in such a way that during anaerobic cellular respiration, lactic acid and little ATP are produced as opposed to during aerobic cellular respiration.

What does the loss of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during ischemia causes cells to do?

The loss of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during ischemia causes cells to: deplete cellular ATP, which inactivates ATPases (for example, Na+/K+ ATPase), decreases active Ca2+ efflux, and limits calcium reuptake by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), resulting in calcium overload in the cell.

How does adenosine triphosphate (ATP) drive energy-required reactions in the cell?

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) drives energy-required reactions in the cell by transferring a phosphate group to another molecule through a process known as phosphorylation.

Is adenosine triphosphate a nucleic acid?

Yes, because nucleic acids are long chains of monomers (nucleotides) that function as storage molecules in a cell.

What is the role of adenosine triphosphate?

ATP absorbs chemical energy from the breakdown of food molecules and uses it to power other cellular processes.

Which electrolyte is necessary for the production of adenosine triphosphate?

The electrolyte known as phosphate is the one necessary for the production of adenosine triphosphate.

Where is the chemical energy stored in adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as shown below?

The covalent bonds between phosphates store the most energy (approximately 7 kcal/mole), with the bond between the second and third phosphate groups storing the most energy (approximately 7 kcal/mole).

Which is the biological importance of the molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?

(ATP) is the cellular energy source that is used and stored in living cells.

How do you describe the structure and function of adenosine triphosphate?

ATP is a nucleoside triphosphate with the structure of a nitrogenous base (adenine), a ribose sugar, and three serially bonded phosphate groups. Because it provides readily releasable energy in the bond between the second and third phosphate groups, ATP is commonly referred to as the cell’s “energy currency.”

What is the adenosine triphosphate functional groups?

The adenosine triphosphate functional groups are nitrogenous base, ribose sugar, and phosphate groups.

How is energy released from adenosine triphosphate?

Energy is released from adenosine triphosphate through a process known as hydrolysis.

What are some adenosine triphosphate benefits?

ATP has an impact on every physiological process that requires energy. Once released into the extracellular space, ATP can communicate signals across cells. ATP alleviates fatigue, boosts strength and power, and improves body composition. Taking ATP supplements improves cardiovascular health.

What is the adenosine triphosphate molar mass?

507.18 g/mol is the adenosine triphosphate molar mass.

What is the function of adenosine triphosphate?

The function of ATP is to capture chemical energy obtained from the breakdown of food molecules and release it to fuel other cellular processes.

What is adenosine triphosphate synthase?

The ATP synthase is a mitochondrial enzyme located in the inner membrane that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate, which is driven by a flux of protons across a gradient generated by electron transfer from the chemically positive to the negative side of the proton.

What is adenosine triphosphate sugar?

The adenosine triphosphate sugar is known as ribose sugar.

ATP (adenosine triphosphate) stores energy in the bonds between its?

ATP (adenosine triphosphate) stores energy in the bonds between its phosphates.

What is adenosine 5 ‘- triphosphate disodium?

This is the primary compound that provides energy to many processes in living cells, including muscle contraction, neurotransmission, and cardiac function.

How is adenosine triphosphate energy produced?

During photosynthesis, ATP is synthesized from ADP using energy from the sun. ATP is also produced during the process of cellular respiration in a cell’s mitochondria. This can be accomplished through either aerobic respiration, which requires oxygen or anaerobic respiration, which does not.

What synthesizes adenosine triphosphate?

ATP synthase synthesizes adenosine triphosphate.

What is an adenosine triphosphate phosphocreatine system?

The ATP–creatine phosphate system, is a system that regenerates ATP by transferring a high-energy phosphate from creatine phosphate to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This anaerobic system can provide ATP for approximately 30 seconds, which is sufficient for activities such as sprinting and weightlifting.

What is the major energy fuel for forming adenosine triphosphate?

The major energy fuel for forming adenosine triphosphate is glucose.

What do cells use the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate for?

Cells use the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to release energy that is used to perform cellular work.

What is adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the main energy currency used in cells.

What is the adenosine triphosphate powder used for?

The adenosine triphosphate powder is used in the support of aging skin to be healthy.

How is adenosine triphosphate hair loss related?

Adenosine triphosphate is related to hair loss because it has been discovered to improve the growth of hair.

When is adenosine triphosphate produced in the greatest quantity?

Adenosine triphosphate is produced in the greatest quantity during metabolism.

Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is primarily used as _ in living organisms?

Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is primarily used as a source of energy in living organisms.

How does the body supply adenosine triphosphate to the cell?

The body supplies ATP through cells that constantly break down ATP to obtain energy. ATP is also continually synthesized from ADP and phosphate via cellular respiration processes.

Do all living cells use the molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?

Yes, all living cells use the molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Adenosine triphosphate releases energy when which of following bonds break?

When the phosphoanhydride bond is broken.

What is adenosine triphosphate disodium used for?

ATP disodium supplementation has been shown to improve bioavailability and provide acute and chronic benefits to cardiovascular health, muscular performance, body composition, and recovery, as well as reduce muscle breakdown and fatigue.

What is adenosine triphosphate an example of?

Adenosine triphosphate is an example of a(n) nucleoside triphosphate.

A video explaining ATP.

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