Air Transport: Definition,Types, Development, Advantages Disadvantages of Air Transport

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Definition of Air Transport

Air transport is an aircraft design for transporting passengers and freight from one location to another in the air using airplanes, jets, rockets helicopters, and drones. Each of these type of air transport has a unique way of achieving speed and the sustainability of it voyage, However there are other types of air transport which may or may not be used for conveying goods, but could be used for recreational purposes, they include,hot air balloons, blimps,gliders,hang gliding,parachuting etc.

Types of air transport

  1. Commercial airplanes
  2. Helicopters
  3. Private planes
  4. Blimps
  5. Gliders
  6. hang gliders
  7. Zeppelin
  8. parachute

Commercial airplanes: these are the common ways in which people travel through the air, the commercial planes provide a fast means of transportation compared to other modes of transport such as road transportrail transport and water transport. Airplanes are capable of carrying hundreds of people from on location to another at a time; the seating is sometimes divided into two or four classes. For instance, most domestic flights usually have two classes which are: First Class and Economy Class. While international flights may have up to four classes such as First Class, Club Class, Business Class, Premium Economy and Economy Class.

Helicopters: helicopters are another fast means of air transport; these move people through the air. Helicopters when compared with commercial airplanes are much more limited when it comes to passengers space and can only transport a few people at a time, whereas some commercial airplanes can transport hundreds of people at a time.

Private planes: private planes are made to provide transportation service for a single person or at most five (5) people at a time. Private planes range from the smallest Cessna to luxury jets such as the Citation CJ1, which carries up to five people in leather-seated comfort. These planes provide comfort and privacy during the trip and these could travel from one location to another for a business purpose or for pleasure.

Blimps: blimps and hot air balloons are used to transport people for recreational purposes. They cover a limited area that enables tourists to see a location on a larger scope than if they tried to view the area from the ground. Blimps used to be a form of commercial transport but are no longer used for that.

Glider: a glider, which is also called sailplane,is a type ofglider aircraftused in the sport ofgliding or for recreational activity. Sailplanes are aerodynamically streamlined and are capable of gaining altitude when flown in rising air. Some modern gliders are made of analuminium, alloyorcompositeframe covered with syntheticsailcloth which forms the wings.

Rocket: a rocket is any vehicle that uses arocketengine; it includes amissile,spacecraft,aircraftor othervehicle. Rockets have been used at least since the 13th century for small-scale military applications and recreational displays. Rockets work more in space than in the atmosphere, the engines work byaction and reactionof pushing the rockets forward simply by expelling their exhaust in the opposite direction at high speed, and can therefore work in the vacuum of space.

Zeppelin: a Zeppelinwas a type ofrigid airshipnamed after the GermanCountFerdinand von Zeppelin, it consists of a cigar-shaped, trussed, and covered frame supported by internal gas cells. Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin designed Zeppelinin the early 20th century. Zeppelins almost look like blimps but they differ by two points: Zeppelins have a metal skeleton with a rigid covering, and they use hydrogen gas to float. These two elements made zeppelins larger when compared to blimps.

Parachute: this is a cloth canopy that is filled with air and allows a person, package or a heavy object attached to it to descend slowly when dropped from an aircraft, or which is released from the rear of an aircraft on landing to act as a brake. Back then, the military developed parachuting technology as a way of saving aircrews from emergencies aboard balloons and aircraft in flight, and later as a way of delivering soldiers to the battlefield. Nowadays, parachuting is performed as arecreationalactivity and as a competitive sport in various places.

Development of Air Transport

Air transport is the newest means of transport; this means of transport was introduced in 1903 but developed into full means of transporting people and freights in the 1930s. The greatest of air transportation started after the Second World War (WW11). This means of transportation can be used for both domestic and international flights.

Of all transport development of the 20th century, those in air transport have been the most striking ones. Who would have thought that when the Wright brothers made their historic flight in 1903, that aircraft would become one of the most important means of passengers transport within just three generations? Improvements have indeed been rapid: jet engines replaced propellers, radar was introduced, the size of aircraft has grown to jumbo proportions; supersonic speeds have been achieved and vertical take-off is now possible.

Today, across the world, air transport is used extensively both for passengers and freight. Broadly, there are two types of services: Those operating for particular purposes on and ad hoc basis and those operating on regular schedules. Into the first category, you will have the flights. (For example, those for tourist in summer and for mineral deposits between inaccessible mines and industrial regions), however, into the latter category would come those services run by British airways and the other world airlines. Increasingly, the routes of both types radiate from the developed regions and especially from the great capital cities and industrial centres of the world. Whenever possible they mark the shortest distance between places and thus use the Great Circle routes to economize both time and fuel. Many cities including London, New york, Cairo and Bangkok possess major international airports and many others are developing their own international airport facilities. In low areas, where there is difficult terrain, air transport provides the only communication possible and assumes a correspondingly greater significance.

Development of Air Transport

Air transport is the newest means of transport; this means of transport was introduced in 1903 but developed into full means of transporting people and freights in the 1930s. The greatest of air transportation started after the Second World War (WW11). This means of transportation can be used for both domestic and international flights.

Of all transport development of the 20th century, those in air transport have been the most striking ones. Who would have thought that when the Wright brothers made their historic flight in 1903, that aircraft would become one of the most important means of passengers transport within just three generations? Improvements have indeed been rapid: jet engines replaced propellers, radar was introduced, the size of aircraft has grown to jumbo proportions; supersonic speeds have been achieved and vertical take-off is now possible.

Today, across the world, air transport is used extensively both for passengers and freight. Broadly, there are two types of services: Those operating for particular purposes on and ad hoc basis and those operating on regular schedules. Into the first category, you will have the flights. (For example, those for tourist in summer and for mineral deposits between inaccessible mines and industrial regions), however, into the latter category would come those services run by British airways and the other world airlines. Increasingly, the routes of both types radiate from the developed regions and especially from the great capital cities and industrial centres of the world. Whenever possible they mark the shortest distance between places and thus use the Great Circle routes to economize both time and fuel. Many cities including London, New york, Cairo and Bangkok possess major international airports and many others are developing their own international airport facilities. In low areas, where there is difficult terrain, air transport provides the only communication possible and assumes a correspondingly greater significance.

Advantages of Air Transport

  1. Air transport is a fast and efficient system which is especially suited to passenger traffic, offering comfort and high quality service; today long distance passenger movements are made almost entirely due to air transport.
  2. Air transport involves the use of direct routes.
  3. It is suited to high quality, expensive and perishable cargoes for which speed is essential; aircraft may also carry freight too small to interest the providers of other transport systems.
  4. It can often reach areas inaccessible to other modes of transport. For instance, areas of in hospitable environment such as Central Brazil and Northern Canada.
  5. It offers complete freedom of movement and this provides potentially flexible routes and services (although most air movements are channelled along strict routes and political factors may restrict both landing and flight paths).

Disadvantages of Air Transport

  1. Air transport is very expensive and as a result of this, it disqualifies all heavy, bulky or low-value cargoes.
  2. Aircraft are expensive to build and operate; it requires elaborate provisions in the form of airport facilities, controlling systems and maintenance.
  3. It depends on weather conditions and therefore can provide and unreliable services.
  4. As aircraft becomes larger, the number of airports capable of being used is declining. This reduces flexibility. There is a growing difficulty of finding suitable sites for airport building as well.
  5. Some airports are far away from urban centres and this offsets the advantage of speed and convenience.
  6. It offers no access between termini and therefore minimum potential for intervening opportunity.
  7. Airports use up valuable land and aircraft cause a lot of noise and air pollution.

 

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