Manufacturing Industry: Types, Features and Examples

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What is Manufacturing Industry?

To manufacture means to produce by the use of machinery, especially in large quantity. Manufacturing industry simply refers to the changing or transformation of raw materials into finished products in the factory.

Firms which belong to the manufacturing industry are those which are involved in the making of goods or articles by hand (traditional manufacturing) or by machinery (modern manufacturing). Modern manufacturing is done on a large scale and it involves the division of labor.

Manufacturing industries include those that make textile, beer, handicrafts, vehicles, irons and steel and petro-chemicals. For a country to develop economically, she needs to try as much as possible to manufacture most of her own goods and avoid total dependence on goods made in other countries. Manufacturing industries have been well developed due to some basic locational factors which include availability of raw materials, large market, skilled and unskilled labor and good transport system etc.

Agriculture and industry are not exclusive of each other, they work hand in hand. For example, the agro-industries have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity. Industries depend on agriculture for raw materials and they on the other hand help to sell their products such as fertilizers, insecticides, irrigation pumps, plastic and PVC pipes, machines and tools .etc. to the farmers. Thus development and competitiveness of manufacturing industry has not only assisted agriculturists in increasing their production but has also made the production process very efficient. However, production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.

Classififcation of Manufacturing Industries

For example, paper is manufactured from wood, iron and steel from iron ore, aluminium from bauxite, sugar from sugarcane. People employed in the secondary activities manufactured the primary materials into finished goods. The workers employed in steel industries, car, breweries, textile industries, bakeries for instance are all under secondary industries. However, the economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries.

Manufacturing industries are classified into two such as:

  • Light industries
  • Heavy industries

Light industries– this is secondary industry which often employs a lot of female workers and which produces relatively small lightweight goods such as pencils, books furniture, toothpaste etc.

Heavy industries– this is another form of secondary industry but it products are heavy and bulky just as many of the raw materials that it uses. Typical examples of heavy industries are ship building, metallurgical industries and petroleum industries which depend entirely on the services of man.

Types of Industry

  1. Primary industries
  2. Secondary industries
  3. Tertiary industries
  4. Service industry/Quaternary industry

Primary industry– Primary industry deals with materials provided by nature such as forestry agriculture, mining and fishing. In other words, primary industry is located where naturally occurring commodities are collected, but they are not physically changed into final good in any way.

Secondary industry– This type of industry deals with the manufacture of finished products; this is where the resources that were collected at the primary level are changed into other products, thereby involving a certain amount of manufacturing. The goods are made either for other manufacturers or for the general public, in either case, the raw materials undergo physical change. Examples of secondary industry include making of sugar from sugarcane, converting of iron ore to steel. etc.

Tertiary industry– Tertiary industry centers around rendering of direct services to man, it includes the commercial services such as transport, banking, wholesaling and retailing. It deals only with goods and forms a link between the first two industries and the customers.

Service industry/Quaternary industry- quaternary industry comprises of all personal services. Unlike tertiary industry, it doesnt deal with goods but with people and requires generally higher levels of skill, expertise and specialization. Activities in such fields include education, research, administration and financial management may be termed quaternary.

Examples of Manufacturing Industries

  1. Cotton textile industry- Cloth is placed next to food, the main raw material for this industry is cotton which is mostly produced in small quantity. There are several thousands cotton and human made fibre textile mills in the world. In recent years, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt due to availability of raw material, market, transport, labour and accessible port facilities. This industry has close relationship with agriculture and provides a living to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spining, weaving, dying, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing. The industry suports many other industries such as chemicals and dyes, mill stores packaging materials and engineering works.
  2. Cement indusry– Cement is is essential for construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports,dams and for other commercial establlishments. This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, sililica, alumina and gypsum. Coal and electric power are needed apart from rail transport.
  3. Chemical industry– The chemical industry is one of the largest in the world, it contributes immensely to the GDP of some of the developed countries. Rapid growth has been noticed in both inorganic and organic sectors. Examples of inorganic sector include synthetic fibres, sulphuric acid (for manufacturing of fertilizers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints dyes etc.) nitricacid, alkalies, soda ash ( used in making soap, glass and detergents. And caustic sada. Inorganic chemicals include petrochemicals, which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, plastics, drugs and pharmacuticals.
  4. Fertilizer industry– many countries of the world depend on crop production to meet the demand of their increasing population, hence fertilizer plays a role in the fertility of the soil. The fertilizer industry is centered around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers and (urea), phosphateic fertilizers and ammonium phosphate ( DAP) and complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P)and potash (K).
  5. Pulp and paper industry– Thepulp and paper industrycomprises of industry that useswoodas raw material and producepulp,paper,paperboardand other cellulose-based products. Paper industryproduces a significant amount of different wastes. The pulp residue contains high cellulose fiber and the other contains high calcium oxide and both can be used in fired clay brick production.
  6. Sugar industry– Sugar is an important element of food, it is used as sweetener to sweetensoft drinks,beverages,convenience foods,fast food,candy,confectionery,baked products, and other sweetened foods. Sugarcane is the main raw material for sugar production. Sugarcane grows well in hot and humid climate.
  7. Iron and steel industry– Iron and steel industry is the basic industry since all the other industries. Heavy, medium and light depends on it for their machinery. Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defense, medical, telephone, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods. Production and consumption of steel is often considered as an index of a countrys development. Iron and steel is a heavy industry because all he raw materials as well as finished goods are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation costs.
  8. Automobile industry– Automobile industry provides vehicles for quick transport of good services and passengers. Buses, trucks, cars, tricycle, motor cycle, bicycle scooters and multi-utility vehicles are manufactured in various parts of the world. This industry has experienced quantum growth over the last century as more of and vehicles are in high demand.

Importance of manufacturing industry

  1. Manufacturing will help any country to provide her basic items and not to import them from outside. This will help save her much needed foreign exchange.
  2. Manufacturing makes for rapid economic development of a country and also provide employment opportunity for the people of a country and makes good available at cheaper price.
  3. Manufacturing industries do not only helps in modernizing agriculture, which forms the base of our economy, they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
  4. Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from the country.It was also aimed at bringing down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and rural areas.
  5. Export and manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and brings in much needed foreign exchange.
  6. Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of finished goods of higher value are very developed and very prosperous.