What is Human Resource (HR)?
Human resource is a set of individual who makes up the workforce of an organization, business sector or economy. Human resources are people seen from the point of view of organisation trying to get valuable work done from those people. Human capital is mostly used interchangeably with human resource, although human capital typically refers to a more narrow view (for instance, the knowledge the individual embody and can contribute to an organization). Likewise, other terms sometimes used include manpower talent, people or labour. Human made resources also often referred to as capital includes all Human-made things that help grow an economy: money, roads, factories, etc. When these terms are used together, it is generally in the context of helping a community develops economically. In that context, we generally consider the land (natural resources), the people (human resources) and the infrastructure (human-man resources).
Human resources could also be referred to as people and their skills that are used to produce goods and services. For examples: secretary, chef, manager, clothe designer, Lawyer etc. The characteristics are intelligence, skills, knowledge, interest abilities, talents and attitude as well as Time.
The development of human capital has always been the focus of concern towards the development of a nation. This is because the growth of tangible capital stock of a nation depends on a considerable degree on human capital development. Without adequate investment in developing the human capital which is the process of increasing knowledge, skills and the capacities of people in the country, the possibility of the growth of that country might be minimal. Historical evidences proved that advance nations depended on education for their rapid economic growth, such as those of United States, former Soviet Union, Japan, and Denmark. There were significance relationships between their economic growth and the quantum and kinds of education provided to their work forces. Similarly, the increase in Gross National Product (GNP) depends on the national expenditure on education. For instance, a significant statistical relationship between levels of human capital development and the levels of GNP.
Human resource definition
Human resource of a nation is defined as the totality of population of a country, which determines the potential labour force of a nation. Investment in the human resources determines the type, quality, availability and productivity of the nations manpower. It involves the socio-economic development strategies. On the other hand, Human Resources are those resources that cannot be touched or felt, rather they are found in human ingenuity of the population but these are perhaps the most important types of resources for the effective functioning and coordination of a country.
Human resources are the most important and vital tools for the economic development, they are the agent of development. They act as an asset for coordinating other resources due to the wide knowledge.
What is Human resources development (HRD)?
Human resource development is defined as empowering people by fostering the contributory capacities that they can bring to the improvement of their own quality of life and that of their families, communities, enterprise and societies. Over the years, the concept of human resource development has evolved from mainly focusing on individual capacities to achieve sustainable, inclusive equitable development and at the same time enhance the well-being of individuals. As global labour markets both shape and adapt to the emerging occupational structures of growing economies, human resources development strategies must balance the demand of new employment sectors with the supply of required skill. Information and telecommunication technology (ICT), Green/Blues Economy and agricultural development are among the most vital sectors for the socio-economic development in almost all countries. The need to enhance skills for emerging sectors (the green growth, knowledge economy, intellectual property policy evaluation and management, etc.) has become particularly important in developing countries.
A comprehensive cross and integrated human resource development approach that is sensitive to gender considerations and attuned to specific needs of vulnerable population should be adopted, incorporating multiple vital areas such as population, health, nutrition, water, sanitation, housing, communications, education and training, science and technology and employment. Human resource development also considers fundamental human rights, the rights of workers and occupational safety and health considerations. Approaches that centre on economic and financial policies are threatened by the recent economic and financial crises, so an international community paradigm, which seeks transformation of the whole society is needed.
Additionally, strategies for sustainable livelihood must be grounded in local communities and governance structures with full involvement of key representatives of civil society in transparent respect for unique geopolitical and cultural settings and diversity. However, education has been an instrument towards the development of human resources in some developing countries.
Importance of Human Resources Development
- A country is developed if the Human Resource is developed: To enhance economic development, the state constructs roads buildings bridges, powerhouses, hospital, dams, etc. To run these units, doctors, engineers, scientist, teachers are required. However if the state invests in human resources, it pays dividend in response.
- Increase in productivity: Better education, improved skills and provision of healthy atmosphere will result in proper and most efficient use of resources (non-natural and natural) which will result in increase in economic production.
- Eradication of social and economic backwardness: Human Resources development has an ample effect on the backwardness of an economy and society. The provision of education will increase literacy which in turn produces skilled humans resources. Similarly, provision of health facilities will results in healthy human resources which will contribute to the national economic development.
- Entrepreneurship increase: Education, clean environment, good health investment on the human resources will all have positive effects. Job opportunities will be created in the country and even business environment will flourish in the state that creates many jobs opportunities.
- Assessing of world power: Human resources could be used to assess power, world super power countries are always known through their scientific and educational profile such as the USA, Japan, Britain and Germany etc.
- Basis for labour supply: Human resources are the basis for labour supply needed for the positive economic growth and development. However, countries with large population coupled with technological development are able to tap their natural resources since all entail human effort.
- Social revolutions: Because of human resources development, the socio economic life of the people of a country changes drastically. Over all look changes, thinking phenomena changes progressive thoughts are endorsed into the minds of the people.
- Ability to coordinate other resources: Human resources acts as an asset for coordinating other resources due to wide knowledge and skills
- Protection of territorial integrity: Countries with large human resources are ever ready in protecting their territorial integrity hence, they can afford more men and women into armed forces and paramilitary bodies.
Problems of Human Resource Development
- Values of leaders and citizens
- Natural resources and natural disasters
- Low population
- The international and regional economic environment education and health care
- Political instability
- Corruption and economic development
- Debt and foreign aid
Human Resource Solutions
- Training of personnel- personnel needs to be undergoing some training so as to improve on their talents, skills, abilities in terms of capacity building among the human resources as to develop the production of goods and services.
- Support for human resources the welfare of staff has to be improved by providing them with housing, transport, electricity and water etc. those that have the talents need to be empowered by providing some micro loans.
- It is the also the responsibility of the government to provide an enabling environments so that goods and services can thrive. However, there is need for government to invest in the development human resources.
- Providing incentives to ensure that human resources are productively deployed.